Femoroacetabular impingement is a bony abnormality or overgrowth causing impingement. The hip is a ball and socket joint and a bony overgrowth or anatomical abnormality can cause impingement on either the femur or acetabular side. This leads to intra-articular damage ‒ labral pathology and subsequent osteoarthritis.
Early detection and treatment is important to limit progression to severe osteoarthritis. Patients typically complain of joint pain and the pain can be exacerbated during flexion, adduction and internal rotation of the hip.
Three types of impingement have been described: cam type, pincer type and a combination of the two.
Pincer type is caused by a prominence of the anterolateral rim of acetabulum or acetabular retroversion causing the labrum to impinge against the femoral neck during hip flexion.
Cam type is caused by a non-spherical femoral head, or “pistol grip” deformity of the proximal femur causing the impingement.
Your workup will consist of X-rays or a MRI or CT scan.
Conservative treatment is only indicated for low demand where activity modification is not a problem. It consists of activity modification.
The reason for your impingement will determine the type of surgery. It can vary from periacetabular osteotomies, proximal femoral osteotomies or a hip arthroscopy.
The aim of the surgery is to decrease your risk for developing early onset osteoarthritis.