Frozen shoulder is associated with pain and decreased range of movement especially external rotation. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is more prevalent in middle aged females. Co-morbid diseases need to be excluded (diabetes mellitus, endocrinopathy and autoimmune disease). Secondary causes include post-operative stiffness, post-traumatic, glenohumeral arthritis and glenohumeral internal rotation deficit.
Treatment is individualised according to a patient’s symptoms and signs.
- Proper counselling
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
- Steroid injections
- Manipulation under anaesthesia.
Improvement can take up to a year. Surgery may be considered if conservative treatment fails. Surgery entails an arthroscopic capsular release.
It is important to adhere to your rehabilitation regime for the best possible outcome.