Frozen shoulder is associated with pain and decreased range of movement especially external rotation.  It is a diagnosis of exclusion.  It is more prevalent in middle aged females. Co-morbid diseases need to be excluded (diabetes mellitus, endocrinopathy and autoimmune disease).  Secondary causes include post-operative stiffness, post-traumatic, glenohumeral arthritis and glenohumeral internal rotation deficit.

Treatment is individualised according to a patient’s symptoms and signs. 


Conservative treatment:

  • Proper counselling
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Physiotherapy
  • Steroid injections
  • Manipulation under anaesthesia.


Improvement can take up to a year.  Surgery may be considered if conservative treatment fails. Surgery entails an arthroscopic capsular release.

It is important to adhere to your rehabilitation regime for the best possible outcome.